Advertise   Subscribe Contact Yemen Post
 
About Us   Our Mission Terms & Services
Yemen Post Newspaper Logo  
Editor Picture By 2015, closed door meetings for Yemen President Abdurabu Hadi will be limited.... Foreign embassy searches not ruled out....Foreign censorship halted..... Yemenis linked with foreign intelligence hunted for.
cheat on my husband online catch a cheater
how to cheat wife why wife cheat all wives cheat
website click here online
read here women who want to cheat website
how abortion works average cost of abortion where can you get the abortion pill
chlamydia test kits click early signs of chlamydia
how to prevent hiv link facts about hiv/aids
rifaximin pill mikemaloney.net levaquin pill
find location cell phone number go tracking device for vehicle
coupon for viagra rx coupon code viagra coupon free
clobetasol 0.05% zovirax pill propecia pill
propranolol 10mg blog.dotnetnerd.dk diprolene
 
Hakim Almasmari  
 Publisher & Editor in Chief   
  Email the Editor
Advanced Search
HOME EDITORIAL
how abortion works celebrity abortion stories where can you get the abortion pill
what are std symptoms will penicillin cure chlamydia free std clinic los angeles
LOCAL
why do women cheat on husbands why husband cheat read
hiv and aids statistics information about hiv aids hiv statistics
abortion bill abortion clinics in pittsburgh pa abortion illegal
treatments for hiv/aids signs of aids in women hiv aids statistics
chlamydia test kits stdstory.com early signs of chlamydia
INTERVIEW REPORT
married men who cheat with men why do guys cheat how to cheat husband
how many women cheat on husbands cheat wife click
website website online
hiv and aids statistics information about hiv aids hiv statistics
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
POLITICS
how to cheat wife why wife cheat all wives cheat
what are std symptoms will penicillin cure chlamydia free std clinic los angeles
chlamydia test kits stdstory.com early signs of chlamydia
BUSINESS
click here click read
why do women cheat on husbands women that cheat on their husbands read
how to cheat wife why wife cheat all wives cheat
hiv and aids statistics treatment of hiv aids hiv statistics
HEALTH
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
YEMEN IN THE NEWS
how many women cheat on husbands online click
MIDDLE EAST
link open click here
click here unfaithful spouse read
what are std symptoms will penicillin cure chlamydia free std clinic los angeles
INTERNATIONAL
why do women cheat on husbands women that cheat on their husbands read
hiv and aids statistics treatment of hiv aids hiv statistics
ARCHIVE
website website online
read here click here website
LATEST UPDATES Follow Yemen Post daily updates on our Twitter page @YemenPostNews :: Houthi forces block vital goods into Taiz, HRW says :: ISIS claims second deadly car bomb in two days in Aden :: Houthis fire ballistic missile on Anad base, destroy five military boats off Yemen :: Gunmen kill Yemen Colonel amid persistent challenges in Aden :: Again, UN seeks international probe into Yemen violations :: Aljazeera crew released in Yemen :: At least 8 people killed in Aden car bomb :: 11-member family killed in Yemen airstrike :: Yemen in emergency appeal to help 1.700 facing death ::
BREAKING NEWS
z
REPORT
click here men who have affairs read
married men who cheat with men why do guys cheat how to cheat husband
how many women cheat on husbands cheat wife click
website website online
hiv and aids statistics information about hiv aids hiv statistics
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
Last updated: 09:22:35 AM GMT(+03) Wednesday, 28, March, 2012
 
 

Banaadiri – The Renewal of a Millenary Identity

website click here online
read here link website
treatments for hiv/aids humanitarian aid organizations hiv aids statistics
teen pregnancy abortion in first trimester how much for a abortion
should i tell my girlfriend i cheated link is my girlfriend cheated on me
tracking phone calls and text messages ps4haber.com spyware for text messages
 
*
 
how to cheat wife my wife cheated all wives cheat
how abortion works surgical aspiration abortion where can you get the abortion pill

 

The historical profile of the Banaadir started probably in Mesopotamia, crossed Yemen and reached the East coast of Africa where the Banaadiri civilization grew and flourished. A profile and book review.

 

*

BANADIR IN HISTORY
The history of East Africa without its association with Islam and Arab influences is like European history without Rome and Greece. East African region had historical and cultural ties with Arabia and Persia because of geographical proximity and the impact of monsoon winds which blow all the way to Zanzibar for six month and the rest six month to the Persian Gulf. Unlike hinterland, the "Banaadiri Coast" had more cultural contacts with the people plying Indian Ocean trade routes following the monsoon winds over the last two thousand years.

The most important source on the Indian Ocean during this period is "Periplus Maris Erythraen" (Circumnavigation of the Erythraen Sea) written by an unknown Greek commercial agent based in Egypt, written about 156 CE. Since the Periplus of the Erythrean Seas, the Banaadiri Coast was an ancient trading center. From India and Arabia, trading sea vessels anchored at Mogadishu, as the first natural harbor in the Horn of Africa to trade and take supplies on their journey to Zanzibar, Kilwa and Sofala.

Because of natural highways of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, the East African coast had received many visitors. The Archeological investigations are still in an embryonic stage but are supporting oral traditions. The excavation during 1910 proved that the ancient Egyptian, Sumarians and Sabeans visited the East Africa Coast for international trade. Trade during 3000 BC flourished between Mesopotamia, Southern Arabia and the East African coast. It was also in the Persian Gulf where the first ship building industry started. Other early visitor to the East African coast were the Phoenicians, a navigating people from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean.

At the very beginning of the first Century CE, all the region stretching up to Zanzibar was part of the Kingdom of Saba (115 BC-525 CE), also known as Sheba. The Sabeans were maritime people, with a large kingdom in Yemen and used the seasonal monsoon winds to travel regularly to and from as far as Zanzibar. They sailed south between November to February, during the Northeast Monsoon, carrying beads, the Chinese porcelain and clothes. Between March and September, they returned to north on the Southwest Monsoon, carrying food grains, mangroves poles for timber, spices, gold from Sofala, ivory and ebony. The Arabs knew the East African coast as "Zinjibar" and hence the romantic name Zanzibar is derived.

Chronicles indicate the existence of Perso-Arab civilization in East Africa before the birth of the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH).

Islam reached peacefully East Africa during the seventh century, and by the tenth century it became a dominant religion in Ethiopia, Somalia and the East African islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Kilwa, Mafia, Pate, Lamu and Mombasa. During the later Middle Ages, i.e. in those crucial three hundred years that appear to have been the formative period of a number of towns and nations along the Indian Ocean shores, the Arabs and Persians spun a network of Moslem connection across the waters in all directions.

Ibn Battuta during his visit in 1331 observes that Arabic was already the common literary and the commercial language spoken all over these coastal islands. Ibn Battuta was extremely marveled at the splendor of Mogadishu. In 1516, the Portuguese navigator Duate calls it "a very big town of blacks called Magadoxo. It is ruled by a Sultan. It undertakes much commerce of different merchandise and many ships arrive here from the big Kingdom of Cambaya, bringing large quantities of clothes of different types and different goods and spices. And again in the 18th century, Sultan Sayed bin – Said of Oman calls it "the most brilliant of all the princesses of Arabia".

Mogadishu known as Hamar by the native founding Rer Hamar people, emerged through the centuries as the cultural and religious center of the Banaadiri Coast. This prosperous trade was rudely interrupted by the arrival of the Portuguese who came round from the other side of Africa, suddenly and unpredictably with bigger and faster ships and better guns. Within thirteen years, by 1511, the Portuguese had made themselves masters of the Indian Ocean. More than ever before, the Indian Ocean became a link, a unifier of cultures.

The Banaadirs (also spelled "Benadir") are people with their roots in ancient Arabia, Persia and South and Central Asia. Their name is derived from a Persian word "bandar" which means "harbor" or port, reflecting their origins as sea-faring traders who crossed the Indian Ocean to the easternmost part of Africa and established centers of commerce which linked that continent with Asia. The first Banaadiri communities were established in what is today southern Somalia about one thousand year ago. Their reputation as the settlements of a prosperous and peace loving people was set down in written accounts by foreign travelers to Africa dating back to the 13th century.

"The Banaadir Coast" as proper name for coastal northeast Africa was used well into 20th century, and as informal designation for southern Somalia remains in use today. Being the first to live in this region as nomalid "Samale" (Somali) people from the African interior did not press south and east to the Indian Ocean until centuries later. The Banaadir port city of Hamar eventually became Mogadishu, Somalia`s capital. The Banaadiris continued to live their ancient stones homes of their forebears built in Mogadishos old quarter. Although there has been intermarriage and influence from African peoples over the centuries, the Banaadir today very much remain a light and few dark skinned minority whose economic livelihood, unlike most of Somali people, is based on commerce and not agriculture.

First group of settlers originally resided in Al-Ahsa on the Persian Gulf, near Bahrain, and Saadah (Asharaf) families from Yemen. Furthermore, they were exclusively composed of 39 families, led by seven brothers. These 39 families belong exclusively to four clans in different proportions. There were 12 families from the Muqarri clan, 12 families from Jidati, 6 families from the Aqabi, and 6 families from Ismaili clan. Successively, other groups emigrated from different regions of the Arabian Peninsula at different times, but mostly from Yemen. Among the followers of the first group of settlers were members of the clans AbdiSamand, AlAwidin, Amudi, Asharaf, BaFadel, BaHamis, BaJamal, Bakri, BaMuqtar, BaSaid, Hamdan, OmarUuduin, shamsudin, Shawish and Wali.

Upon their arrival, these early settlers have established centers of commerce, doing business with traders from as far as India and China. In the tenth century along the Banaadir coast shoe factories and textile plants were established and the entire production of clothes was exported to Arab countries, Persia, India, China and other centers along the East African coast. The construction of building and mosques with great artistic value was another feature of that time. So sophisticated with urban culture and extraordinary literate background, these early settlers along the coast of the Indian Ocean were described by foreign visitors as "people bound together by ties of citizenship and not by tribal relationships", remarking on their identification with locality and not by tribal affiliations. In 1891 one of the major chiefs was Sayyed Ahmed BaAlawi whose ancestors had come from Tarim in Hadhramawt, province in the present day Republic of Yemen, seven generations earlier.

Shamsud-Din Abu Abdalla Muhammed better known as Ibn Battuta arrived probably in November or early December 1330 in Aden and sailed with the favorable monsoon to Zeila, Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa. At Mogadishu the learned traveler was received with great honor and ceremony by the Qadi and the local ruler, Shaikh Abu Bakr Ibn Shaykh Omar. The Shaykh was conversant in Arabic but his own language was different. We do not learn the name or even one word of this language but it is likely that it was Swahilli. For the Somali had not yet arrived in Mogadishu, and would not arrive for at least another 400 years.

Many place names in what is now southern Somalia are clearly of Swahili origin, including Shangani, meaning "on sand" near Mogadishu. The Qadi was surrounded by his students who were at the same time his assistants doing a practical "stage" at his Madrasa which was no ordinary Quranic school. It was an institute for advanced studies in Islamic law, built near Shaykhs palace to which aspiring law specialist came for study. Mogadishu then was already a center of Islamic learning and culture. The citizens were rich, and Ibn Battuta comments on their good food and well-to do- appearance.

While many historians still maintain that the Portuguese came to the African East Coast as explorers for spices under the patronage of Prince Henry, a few have different opinion. Contemporary Islamic scholars view it as Crusade against Islam, normally associated only to the Middle East. The arrival of Portuguese to East Africa was the first landmark for the strong hostility and competition between Islam and Christianity. As a result Mombasa became the capital of the Portuguese when the whole of East African coast from Lamu to the north to Sofala in the south was virtually under the Portuguese domination. Mombasa was five times burned to the ground, its peoples put to the sword or carried into slavery. Yet it rose again and again from its smoking ashes. Kilwa was ravaged with fire and sword, its people were driven from their homes.

The Portuguese tried to capture the coasts of Banaadir on many occasions without much success. There is one famous account of the ransacking of the Banaadiri city of Barawa by Portuguese in 1499. The invaders spent three days in town and were ransacking it and gathering and loading their loot, a large amount of booty constituting of gold, ivory, and cotton and silk fabrics. The town was then set on fire.

With the independence of Somalia in 1960, Mogadishu became the national capital of Somalia. For thirty years, Somalis all over the country and abroad, poured in their capital to build houses, made business and were part of the prosperous community it generated. During the last 12 years, however, Mogadishu and other Banaadiri towns have seen one of the worst nightmares in its history. Decorations, antiques, and sacred patrimonies as far as 12th century were looted from ancient mosques. Archeological sites, going back to ancient dynasties in Mogadishu, Gondoreshe, Merka, Barawa and Kismayo were vandalized.

Banaadir and the regions between the two rivers of Somalia are of great strategic and economic value to the major tribes of Somalia who are contending for accesses not only to land, resources, port facilities but also to man-power skills. Mogadishu, Merca, and Barawa are considered to be the major ports of Southern Somalia. UNDP listed the ancient places of Hamar Weyne and Shingani in Mogadishu as historic sites that should be preserved for their historic value.

THE BOOK "The Banaadiri: The Renewal of a Millenary Identity/ Il risveglio di una millenaria identita"

For the past three decades we have witnessed radical interest in the history of the Indian Ocean and East Africa in particular. A new generation of local researchers are utilizing innovative research material at their own disposal. They are utilizing oral tradition, linguistic evidence and the archeological data. They have now produced excellent studies which have put the East African Coast into the center of her historical development.

Born in Mogadishu, the autor is descendant of Al Faqi, known also as reer Faqi or Qahtaan religious dynasty, appointed by the Banaadiri as administrators of justice in the territory, from the Middle Ages until the first years of the Italian occupation. Nuredin Hagi Scikel later graduated in civil engineering at Bologna, Italy where he now lives. Since 1990 has been active in the defiance of the rights of the Banaadiri people and has published several articles in Italian periodicals on the subject.

"Banaadiri: The Renewal of a Millenary Identity" is a remarkable book and a valuable contribution to the history of Banaadir. First of its kind, it is written simultaneously in Italian and English, the book examines the existing studies on the subject. It shows how rich and developed the Banaadiri society was well before Italian colonization. The extraordinary pictures and drawings in the book help to visualize the Banaadiri historical profile that started probably in the Mesopotamia, crossed Yemen and reached the East coast of Africa where the Banaadiri civilization grew and flourished.

We have thus arrived in the modern period with rather big strides. Our time of air traffic and jumbo jets has left the Ocean below as a battle ground for aircraft-carriers and submarines. The once numerous elegant Arab dhows which connected all the colorful ports of the East African coast have been super-seeded by the giant tankers, while the business of carrying cargo in bulk is mostly in the hands of the Japanese Maru ships which bring Japanese printed cotton cloth to East Africa, replacing Indian cotton which once dominated the market.

Irena Knehtl
Sana`a, Yemen


Book reference
The Banaadiri: The Renewal of a Millenary Identity/ Il risveglio di una millenaria identita by Nuredin Hagi Scikei. Published by Clueb, Bologna, Italy, 2002, 90 pages, ISBN 88-491-2031- 1

Useful reference:
The Banaadirs People, report by Mohammed Ahmed H. Mohammed Abati, a Banaadiri scholar, untitled

 

 

 

 

 

 

why do women cheat on husbands women cheat on their husbands read
read here women who want to cheat website
reasons wives cheat on their husbands why men cheat all wives cheat
what are std symptoms will penicillin cure chlamydia free std clinic los angeles

women who cheat on relationships reasons wives cheat on their husbands I cheated on my boyfriend
why do women cheat on husbands why husband cheat read
how to cheat wife why wife cheat all wives cheat
website website online
*
Source: Yemen Post
why do women cheat on husbands why husband cheat read
how to prevent hiv link facts about hiv/aids
 
 
MORE REPORT
click here men who have affairs read
married men who cheat with men why do guys cheat how to cheat husband
how many women cheat on husbands cheat wife click
website website online
hiv and aids statistics information about hiv aids hiv statistics
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
 
Yemeni Expatriates, Remittances and Sustainable Development
Open Budget Survey Findings Released
Military progress could change reality in Yemen
how abortion works celebrity abortion stories where can you get the abortion pill
i told my husband i cheated on him open i cheated on my husband should i tell him
Yemeni Journalists: Toughest Times Ever
how abortion works celebrity abortion stories where can you get the abortion pill
what are std symptoms will penicillin cure chlamydia free std clinic los angeles
walgreens coupons online walgreens coupon deals walgreens prints coupon
Skepticism over benefit of Geneva talks on Yemen
read here click here website
teen pregnancy abortion in first trimester how much for a abortion
best spyware app crossbordercapital.com phone spy free app
Skepticism over benefit of Geneva talks on Yemen
why do women cheat on husbands why husband cheat read
read here click here website
black women white men affairs with married men husband cheated
i told my husband i cheated on him site i cheated on my husband should i tell him
THE SAUDI-LED BLOCKADE IS DEVASTATING YEMEN
link open click here
what are std symptoms venereal disease list free std clinic los angeles
treatments for hiv/aids signs of aids in women hiv aids statistics
i told my husband i cheated on him open i cheated on my husband should i tell him
Yemen swaps for gas engines amid deepening fuel crisis
how to cheat wife my wife cheated all wives cheat
teen pregnancy link how much for a abortion
tracking phone calls and text messages sms gizmo tracking spyware for text messages
Yemen rushes to complete collapse
website website online
abortion bill abortion clinics abortion illegal
reasons wives cheat on their husbands why men cheat all wives cheat
best free text spy app spy text app 100 free spy apps for android
chlamydia test kits home test for std early signs of chlamydia
Experts: Yemen should not completely depend on Arabs, army now needed
unfaithful wives looking for affair cheat on husband
how to cheat wife why wife cheat all wives cheat
website website online
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
how abortion works celebrity abortion stories where can you get the abortion pill
treatments for hiv/aids signs of aids in women hiv aids statistics
reasons why women cheat open what makes a husband cheat
i love my wife but i want to cheat site i want my wife to cheat
 
 
Comments
 
Leave a Comment
Comment will be published once it has been approved by our moderators.
Name:
Title:
Comment:

TERMS AND CONDITIONS
Yemen Post may edit comments for length and clarity but will not change the tone of the message. Comments will only be accepted if all fields (including name) are filled correctly and the message isn't abusive, defamatory or offensive. All comments sent may be forwarded for use in the Yemen Post newspaper.
Article Tools
Email this Article Email this article
Print Friendly Version Print Freinedly Version
Email this Article Email the Editor
 
Most popular
 Follow Yemen Post daily updates on our Twitter page @YemenPostNews
 Houthi forces block vital goods into Taiz, HRW says
 Houthis fire ballistic missile on Anad base, destroy five military boats off Yemen
 ISIS claims second deadly car bomb in two days in Aden
 At least 8 people killed in Aden car bomb
 Aljazeera crew released in Yemen
 
Services
  Letters to the Editor
treatments for hiv/aids what are the chances of getting hiv hiv aids statistics
teen pregnancy shareabortionstory.com how much for a abortion
early stages of hiv treatments of hiv/aids the symptoms of aids
why do women cheat on their husbands ironsharpdev.com husbands who cheat
cheat on your wife website how do you know your wife cheated how do you know your wife cheated
hotel sex story adult anal sex stories sex education story
walgreens promo code 2015 open free discount prescription cards
when your husband cheats solveit.openjive.com women cheat
sildenafil citrate jcmikkelsen.dk furosemide pill
prescription card discount carp-fishing.nl coupon prescription
my husband cheated storyofcheating.com women affairs
  Dear President
link open click here
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
how to prevent hiv click facts about hiv/aids
i want my wife to cheat on me robertsuk.com my wife cheated on me now what do i do
walgreens promo code 2015 open free discount prescription cards
vibramycin open cipro 250mg
  Advertise
click here unfaithful spouse read
how to cheat wife my wife cheated all wives cheat
how many women cheat on husbands online click
read here women who want to cheat website
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
black women white men married men who cheat husband cheated
teen pregnancy link how much for a abortion
why do women cheat on their husbands wives who cheat husbands who cheat
my girlfriend cheated on me with my best friend blog.mondor.org girlfriend cheated on me
keflex 750mg prednisolone 10mg albuterol (salbutamol)
sildenafil citrate jcmikkelsen.dk furosemide pill
vibramycin shouldersofgiants.co.uk cipro 250mg
clobetasol 0.05% zovirax pill propecia pill
  Subscribe
how abortion works surgical aspiration abortion where can you get the abortion pill
cvs deal this week allindiasweetsrestaurant.com cvs sale ad
walgreens coupon code photo peterdn.com coupons free
keflex 750mg open albuterol (salbutamol)
sildenafil citrate jcmikkelsen.dk furosemide pill
cialis 40mg thyroxine 50mcg keflex 250mg
levitra site levofloxacin 250mg
gabapentin 300mg clomid cialis 80mg
  Submit Your Articles
unfaithful wives looking for affair cheat on husband
read here link website
hiv and aids statistics new aids treatment aids hiv statistics
best free text spy app android spy cam 100 free spy apps for android
did my husband cheat why did i cheat on my husband why would my husband cheat
hotel sex story adult anal sex stories sex education story
free erotic adult stories astrobix.com illistrated adult stories
tretinoin link keflex 500mg
  Classified
should i tell my girlfriend i cheated blog.rewardsrunner.com is my girlfriend cheated on me
my girlfriend cheated on me with my best friend blog.mondor.org girlfriend cheated on me
i told my husband i cheated on him site i cheated on my husband should i tell him
i love my wife but i want to cheat ballslapped.com i want my wife to cheat
how to get an abortion pill go post abortion
signs of infidelity reasons women cheat on their husbands what to do when husband cheats
free prescription drug discount card internet drug coupons prescription drugs discount cards
coupon viagra click coupon for viagra
  Readers' Letters
link open click here
women who cheat on relationships how to know if wife has cheated I cheated on my boyfriend
how many women cheat on husbands cheat wife click
walgreens coupon code photo read coupons free
clomiphene 100mg viagra 120mg ventolin
buy viagra 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
levitra site levofloxacin 250mg
 

Sabafon

women who cheat on relationships reasons wives cheat on their husbands I cheated on my boyfriend
abortion bill how much is it to get an abortion abortion illegal
how abortion works average cost of abortion where can you get the abortion pill
my girlfriend cheated on me with my best friend how do you get girlfriend girlfriend cheated on me
spyware phone tracking site spy cell phone tracking
keflex 750mg open albuterol (salbutamol)
coupons viagra copay cards for prescription drugs manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
 
Quick poll
Do you think the war in Yemen Will last more than a Year?
walgreens coupon code photo how to get free coupons coupons free
coupon for viagra medication coupon viagra coupon free
viagra coupon viagra trial coupon viagra prescription coupon
discount prescription coupons click free coupon for viagra
my husband cheated storyofcheating.com women affairs


VOTE  OR SEE POLL RESULTS
 

women who cheat on relationships reasons wives cheat on their husbands I cheated on my boyfriend
unfaithful wives looking for affair cheat on husband
hiv and aids statistics new aids treatment aids hiv statistics
treatments for hiv/aids what are the chances of getting hiv hiv aids statistics
teen pregnancy abortion in first trimester how much for a abortion
when your husband cheats solveit.openjive.com women cheat
keflex 750mg prednisolone 10mg albuterol (salbutamol)
rifaximin pill viagra levaquin pill
buy viagra 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
   
   
   
© Yemen Post. All Rights Reserved 2007- 2016    

link open click here
best free text spy app free app android 100 free spy apps for android
hotel sex story adult anal sex stories sex education story
walgreens coupon code photo peterdn.com coupons free
clomiphene 100mg apeoholic.se ventolin
 Designed and developed by
  HyperLink